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Basic Research Designs

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❶Different research books will use different terms for similar types of research.

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Once the research question has been formulated, it is critical that the researcher select the appropriate research methodology to answer the question. The type of research question will typically dictate the methodology that will be employed. The reliability and validity of the results depends on upon proper selection of the research approach and design. Research is a systematic inquiry used to describe, explain, predict or control some observed phenomenon - the research topic.

Research can be classified into four main forms based on the specific purpose:. Regardless of the purpose of the research, the process is similar. Researchers begin by selecting a broad research topic and conducting a literature review to build up the researcher's knowledge base and to ensure the significance of the research. The researcher will then develop a research problem related to the topic and create a specific question.

The research design will then be developed and the procedures for analyzing the data will be identified. The results of the research will hopefully lend themselves to the publication of a scholarly article. There are two main approaches to a research problem - quantitative and qualitative methods.

Quantitative methods are used to examine the relationship between variables with the primary goal being to analyze and represent that relationship mathematically through statistical analysis. This is the type of research approach most commonly used in scientific research problems. Qualitative methods are chosen when the goal of the research problem is to examine, understand and describe a phenomenon.

These methods are a common choice in social science research problems and are often used to study ideas, beliefs, human behaviors and other research questions that do not involve studying the relationship between variables.

The following table lists and describes the most common research designs used at Grand Canyon University. Different research books will use different terms for similar types of research. However, the research designs identified in this document are fairly common in terms of their use and their terminology. Explore the relationship between two or more variables through a correlational analysis. The intent is to determine if and to what degree the variables are related.

It does not imply one causes the other. Intent is to study and understand a single situation, which could be a leader, a classroom, a process, program, activity. Collect a variety of material in a specific and bounded time period.

This is also used for historical studies, when collecting historical data to understand and learn from the past. Compare two groups with the intent of understanding the reasons or causes for the two groups being different. Test an idea, treatment, program to see if it makes a difference. There is a control group and a test group.

Individuals are randomly assigned to the two groups. One group gets the treatment test group and the other group control group does not get the treatment. There is a pre and post-test for both groups in a traditional experimental design. It is the same as experiment in that there is a control and test group. However, current groups are used as is rather than randomly assigning people to the two groups.

Both groups receive the pre and post- test in a traditional design. Studies a human experience at an experiential level such as understanding what it means for a woman to lose a child.

It is about understanding the essence or meaning of the experience. A mixed research design involves having both a quantitative design and qualitative design. Mixed designs is the best approach if the study requires both quantitative and qualitative designs to address the problem statement. Mixed design studies take significantly more time, more resources, and require the researcher to develop expertise in qualitative analysis techniques and quantitative analysis techniques. Qualitative studies can use numbers, counts and even descriptive statistics.

Using numbers does not mean the study has to be quantitative or mixed methods. The following YouTube video uses psychological research questions as examples to discuss possible experimental designs.

Research Designs - This web link explores the main types of research design and provides additional links for more information. Choosing Appropriate Research Methodologies and Methods - The following website discusses qualitative and quantitative research methods and factors that should be considered when choosing the appropriate method. In The Difference Between. What are different types of research papers? There are different types of research papers: Case studies A case study is an in-depth study of a particular situation rather than a statistical survey.

It is a narrow method of reporting on a topic or situation often giving context to other research. Compare and contrast papers A compare and contrast research paper discusses the pros and cons of two pieces of work.

The writer needs to do enough research on both pieces of work to be able to make comparisons and contrasts critically. Argumentative papers This is a paper which contains arguments, the writer's personal points of view and a solution. It is often about a controversial issue. It will contain a balanced argument from both sides. If the writer is going to stay neutral he should make sure that he does not write more points for one side than the other. Analytical papers This type of research contains various sources of information that analyse different points of view on a given topic.

The writer has a broad and open approach, studying a wide variety of resources, and coming to a general conclusion at the end. Cause and effect papers This type of research is often used in business or education. The writer analyses the reason for the probable cause and the result effect. Reports Reports are one of the professional types of research papers.

There are different types of reports: Subject-based papers This is the most common type of paper written by learners in schools and colleges. Subject-based papers are usually on a given topic decided by the teacher or tutor. A student should research the topic, looking at a variety of resources and then write the paper.

Different types of research Survey research The researcher collects the information, analyses the data and reports the results. Examples of survey research are: What is the difference between field research and field study and field work?

As a geologist I use these terms interchageably. If you want to be more precise, "field work" could refer to every visit to the area subject of study. All the data collected from several "field work" campains result on a "field study". How are different types of research described? Why did this happen?

What will happen if it is not happened in this manner? Is there any alternative that can be followed to replace? If yes, what is it? If not, then why? Types of research is a very broad concept because almost everything in this world can be a area of research depending upon one's own interest.. I pulled this from a study guide I made awhile back for research methods I. Perhaps it will be helpful, although I'm sure there are many more varieties and comprehensive definitions than just these.

Actually, the whole study guide pertains to research, so here's a short version of the whole thing. Forgive me for any typos. Research Methods Study Guide 1.

Culture of Research and Basic Science Concepts. Basic Vs Applied Research - Applied research is targeted at specific practical questions, Basic research targets knowledge for knowledge's sake. Inductive research - taking specific pieces of collected data to a general conclusion. You do this to hopefully avoid repeating a prior experiment and wasting time.

Replication - Being able to reproduce the same results yourself or by other researchers. Causal Relationships - a direct relationship between one event cause and another event effect which is the consequence result of the first. Empirical Research - by direct observation. Theories Vs Hypotheses - A theory is a broad and comprehensive explanatory framework that generates numerous hypotheses, whereas a hypothesis is a specific prediction typically derived from a theory.

Operational definition - a completely explicit description of the means and criteria used to measure the concept. Must give in all research articles. Empirical questions - a question that can be answered through direct observation. Deductive Research - having a general conclusion then looking for the data. What is the difference between basic and applied research. Which is most likely to produce breakthroughs in knowledge and theory?

Basic research is more likely to produce breakthroughs. I imagine the reasoning behind this is that when you undertake research purely to gain information, there is a chance that you will encounter something completely new. Whereas within applied research the motive seems primarily to enhance the answers we have for specific practical questions. Applied research would seem geared toward efficiency, while basic research would seem geared toward pushing the envelope and encountering perhaps murky, but brand new ideas.

What distinguishes an empirical question from a non empirical question? An empirical question is one that is objective, and that can be answered through direct observation; while a non empirical question would be more subjective and conceptual.

What is an operational definition, and how is that distinct from a merely conceptual definition? An operation definition is a complete, thorough, and explicit description of the means and criteria used to measure the concept. The conceptual definition is the broader idea, and the operational definition is the replicable terms of how one has attempted to measure it.

What is it about an operational definition that makes observations "objectively quantifiable"?. By stating their operation definitions researchers make it possible for other researchers to use, criticize, or refine the measurement technique, or to compare results with other researchers who used different operational definitions to measure the same thing. Therefore, what makes observations objectively quantifiable is merely that the researcher has provided an operational definition that makes the measurement technique explicit, public, and subject to examination by the scientific community.

Why is quantification turning observations into numbers or categories necessary for operational definitions? Once quantified, the operational definition becomes a mathematical formula that anyone can attempt. Quantification translates an operational definition into the language of mathematics which is fairly universal. Naturalistic Observation - Observing something within its natural environment without the subject being aware, or more importantly changing its behavior because of the observation.

Independent Variable - The variable manipulated by the experimenter.. Levels of an IV - The different groups within an experiment. Individual Difference Variables - Organismic Variables.. Can be complicated by sequence, practice, and fatigue effects.

Between Subject Experiments - involves random assignment of subjects to conditions. Each subject is used for only one condition..

Correlations Study - A study in which the researchers measure the type and strength of relationships among variables that are not under the researchers control. Organismic Variable - The individual differences of people in a study. External Validity - Typically derived from field based research; applicable to outside world but hard to prove cause and effect; generalizable..

Negative or Inverse Correlation - Reluctance - changes that come about by being watched. Experiment - Researcher manipulates a variable and measures its effect on another variable typically to prove cause and effect. Extraneous Variable - the normality of uncontrollable difference EV. Internal Validity - Typically derived from lab experiments, looks to prove cause and effect, but hard to apply to real world.

Participant Observer Technique - Using a researcher in the experiment as a "fly on the wall" to participate and observer from inside the experiment. Correlations Coefficient - Pearson's R. The measure of one things relation with another. Hawthorne Effect - specific version of reluctance in which the IV doesn't cause the effect, but the awareness of change causes the effect and increases productivity.

Pearson's R - Pearson's product-moment correlation expressed as r between Quasi-Experiment - wannabe experiments, typically wanting to prove cause and effect, but do not have control of critical variables that are needed for a true experiment. Random Assignment - Randomizes EV's across conditions. Hold EV's constant - involves making sure that some factors are the. Manipulate EV's into IV's - makes a more complex but informative.

Population - A group of interest. Random Sampling Vs Random Assignment - Random sampling is an issue of external validity, because if you don't randomly sample you cannot generalize your results to the rest of the world. Random assignment is an issue of internal validity; if you do not randomly assign your subjects to conditions you may create CV's that threaten the experiments internal validity and proof of causality. Reliability - The operational definition must be free of excessive amounts of random measurement error..

Does not equal validity.. Sample - means of drawing, randomly or not, people from a given group into an experiment. Representativeness - Does the sample represent the population?. Validity in the context of measurement theory - Does the operational definition measure what it is supposed to? Stratified Random Sampling - randomly sampling from a specific group.

Sample Size - The higher the sample size the more likely the results are to be accurate. Must be at least 20 to be considered an accurate representation of any given group. Sampling Error - sample mean minus population mean. Types of research design? Generally there are three types of research design: Measured and express in terms of quantity.

Expression of a property or quantity in numerical terms. Quantitative Research Design helps in precise measurement, knowing trends or changes overtime, comparing trends.

Involves quality or kind, helps in having insight into problem or cases. The type of research in which a research or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches e. Different type of research method in the study of sociology? The most common forms of research used in sociology include longitudinal studies, interviews based on open questions,structured interviews, unstructured interviews, structured questionnaires, unstructured questionnaires andparticipant observation.

Different types of research? There are a variety of types of research. These includequantitative research, qualitative research, pragmatic research, aswell as participatory research. What is difference between assignment and research? Let's define both words and from that you will be able to decipher the difference: Research - a careful hunting for facts or truth about a subject; an inquiry Assignment - something that is assigned, especially a piece of work to be done.

What is case study research design? A case study is an a real life situation that illustrates a certainpoint. They are used to see how a theory or principle applies tothe real world. Different types of market research? There are two different types of market research ' Primary and Secondary '. Primary is when you are carrying out your own new research. Secondary is research that already exists as it has already been carried out.

This is usually the cheaper type method of research but may not inform you of everything you need to know. Primary research can then be carried out through quantitative or qualitative research. Quantitative research is numerically oriented, requires significant attention to the measurement of market phenomena and often involves statistical analysis.

Perhaps the most common quantitative technique is the 'market research survey'. These are basically projects that involve the collection of data from multiple cases - such as consumers or a set of products.

Quantitative surveys can be conducted by mail self-completion , face-to-face in-street or in-home , telephone, email or web as Marketest service Qualitative research provides an understanding of how or why things are as they are. Research of this sort is mostly done face-to-face. One of the best-known techniques is market research group discussions or focus groups Doing both types of market research is usually most effective! Different types of research in social research?

To come up with a good research output, a good research design is needed. Without a good research design, the researcher will find himself flooded with information which may not be appropriate in meeting his objectives.

Social Research Social research is aimed towards an understanding of social phenomena. Applying the appropriate research design in gathering the required data about people and their behavior is essential in understanding the complexities of human behavior.

Social research uses both quantitative and qualitative approaches; the former approach focuses on quantifying evidence and usually applies statistics in analyzing the data gathered to reveal generalities while the latter aims to achieve understanding through subjective analysis of subjects and emphasizes the context by which things happen.

The number of subjects of social research scientists range from a multitude of people to individuals. Documents are also examined to strengthen the findings. Hereunder are 4 different types of research design that social scientists employ to gather data in the field in a systematic manner to come up with sound, reliable results. Experimental Research Design An experiment is a research design where a certain degree of control over a given set of variables is exercised by the researcher when conducting an investigation.

Experiments are used to test new hypothesis or existing theories with the end in view of confirming or refuting them. The experiment starts off with a problem statement, a hypothesis is formulated, then an experiment is carried out to find out if the hypothesis is correct or not. The results are analyzed using statistics that form the basis in coming up with a conclusion. When many experiments have already been done getting the same results, a theory may be formed which are then conveyed through publication of findings.

For example, an experiment is carried out to find out which amount of a toxin will cause symptoms to experimental animals referred to generally as "guinea pigs.


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Research design can be divided into two groups: exploratory and conclusive. Exploratory research, according to its name merely aims to explore specific.

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WHAT IS RESEARCH DESIGN? 1 THE CONTEXT OF DESIGN Before examining types of research designs it is important to be clear about the role and purpose of research design. We need to understand what research design is and what it is not. We need to know where Design methods design.

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Design lacks rigorous standards applied to methods of data gathering and analysis because one of the areas for exploration could be to determine what method or methodologies could best fit the research problem. CHAPTER 4 Research Methodology and Design Introduction All research is based on some underlying philosophical assumptions about what constitutes 'valid' research and which research method(s) is/are appropriate for the.

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A mixed research design involves having both a quantitative design and qualitative design. Mixed designs is the best approach if the study requires both quantitative and qualitative designs to address the problem statement. 51 CHAPTER 3 Research design and methodology INTRODUCTION This chapter covers the research design and methodology, including sampling, population.